Safe and clean water is very important in promoting public health. Availability of clean
water is very important in the economic development of a nation. Water pollution is one of the
current and modern environmental problems encountered in the society. Water pollution
generally refers to the contamination of the water resources through directing pollutants to the
water sources without properly limiting the harm or negative effects of such pollutants in the
society. Significant contamination and pollution of the water bodies have significantly affected
accessibility of clean water for both human and animal consumption (Natural Resources Defense
Council, n .d.). Increased pollution that has posed a threat to the clean water bodies in the current
world has resulted into clean water crisis.
Globally, more than one billion people are still h experiencing the shortage of clean
water. Even though the issue s presumed to be more serious in the developing world, even
most of the population in the developed countries does not have proper supply of clean water.
Lack of clean water for consumption has diverse effects in human life (United Nations, n. d.).
Contaminated water places people vulnerable to various heath conditions such as diarrhea,
dysentery and typhoid. These preventable le diseases can be managed by improving access to
clean wafer for human consumption. Approximately a million people lose their lives because
of these health conditions resulting from consumption of contaminated water with children
remaining to be the most vulnerable population.
Other than physical health effects, lack of clean water also have, serious economic and
social affects inhuman lives. Lack of Clean water significantly increases expenditure in
healthcare, as people are likely to be sick frequently which increase economic burden in the
human society. On the other hand, deaths that occur as a result of disease from contaminated
water interferes with the social organizations of the communities in the end (World Health
Organization, 2015)..
Various factors have significantly contributed in the contamination and pollution of
clean water. These factors include arrange of scientific, and social issues. To begin with, the
scientific innovation that has led to the modernization of agricultural practices has significantly
resulted in the contamination of clean water bodies. Agriculture have gone through scientific
transformation and as modern technologies are being employed to increase food production to
ensure food security for the growing population, there is risk that these scientific agricultural
activities pose threat to clean water bodies. The use of modern fertilizers, which are components
of various chemical substances such as nitrates, phosphates pose threat to the water, bodies when
these chemical substances are swept into the water bodies. In addition, the use of pesticides and
other chemical substances to control weeds in the farms significantly pose pollution risks to the
available water bodies (Conserve Energy Future, 2015).
Other than modernization of farm and agricultural practices, the rise and the increase of
industrial development because of increased scientific researches to increase the production,
capacity significantly carries pollution risks to the available water bodies. Industrial growth has
significantly witnessed the emergence of many industries, which rely majorly on water bodies
for disposal of their waste products. Most of this industrial waste has high level of chemical
substances that pollute water bodies and which may significantly pose risks, not only human life
but also affects aquatic life (Conserve Energy Future, 2015).
Maintenance of clean water bodies and ensuring that the available water bodies remain
safe for human and animal consumption is not an individual responsibility. Various stakeholders
have significant responsibilities to protect and ensure safety of the available sources of clean
water bodies. To begin with, government remains a significant stakeholder in this fight.

Government through its environmental ministries and departments has responsibility to play to
ensure that the available water bodies are significantly protected and remain safe for human
consumption. On the other hand, the public are important stakeholders. The contribution of the
public in the protection of water bodies as through personal behaviors and as the watchdog of the
government to report individuals breaking the environmental policies is very significant in
protecting the available water sources. In addition, other environmental agencies and
international institutions such as the United Nations Environmental Program are viable
stakeholders whose participation may contribute a significant change in the protection of clean
water sources. Lastly, industries, which are one of the major contributors of environmental
pollution, remain to be important stakeholders who should be involved in the protection of the
water sources.
There is program that has been developed to address the problem of pollution of water
source. The greenbelt program has been initiated to increase the vegetation cover around the
available water sources as a means of prevent the depletion of the available sources of clean
water. This program has brought together many stakeholders in the field governmental and non-
governmental. Other than increasing the vegetation corer, the program educates the shareholders
on how to prevent pollution.
It is possible to be civilly involved in the problem of water pollution in various ways. To
begin with, an individual may be on the upper front to help in developing laws and policies that
will mandate various stakeholders to ensure maintenance of clean water sources. This involves
developing laws and polices hat govern the operations and activities of various stakeholders to
protect water sources from pollution.



World Health Organization. (2015). Drinking water. Retrieved on June 3, 2015
Natural Resources Defense Council. (n .d.).Water. Retrieved on June 3, 2015 from
Conserve Energy Future. (2015). Sources of Water Pollution. Retrieved on June 3, 2015 from
United Nations. ( n. d.) Water. Retrieved on June 3, 2015 from

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